Scientific information

TABLE: BENEFITS OF ASTAXANTHIN
Immunity
Study Results Link
Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. (2010) (15) Decreased DNA damage biomarker, decreased inflammatory response, increased activity of Natural Killer immune cells and increased subpopulation of B and T immune cells Abrir Link
Physical Activity
Study Results Link
Building strength, endurance, and mobility using an astaxanthin formulation with functional training in elderly. (2018) (1) Increased muscle strength, muscle mass, endurance and mobility on elders Abrir Link
Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on muscle damage and oxidative stress markers in elite young soccer players. (2012) (2) Decreased markers of muscle damage and oxidative stress after exercise Abrir Link
Effect of astaxanthin on cycling time trial performance. (2011) (3) Effect of astaxanthin on cycling time trial performance. Higher power and faster exercise speeds Abrir Link
Effect of Astaxanthin Supplementation on Salivary IgA, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Young Soccer Players. (2015) (4) Increased immunity, reduced oxidative stress, reduced markers of muscle and tissue damage and reduction of inflammation markers Abrir Link
Neurological Effects
Study Results Link
Antioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. (2011) (5) Better antioxidant capacity of red blood cells, which can contribute to the prevention of dementia Abrir Link
Astaxanthine secured apoptotic death of PC12 cells induced by beta-amyloid peptide 25-35: its molecular action targets. (2010) (6) Neuronal protection against Alzheimer's disease Abrir Link
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Astaxanthin and Sesamin on Daily Fatigue: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Way Crossover Study. (2018) (7) Significant improvement in recovery from mental fatigue. Attenuation of increased levels of an oxidative stress marker during physical and mental activities Abrir Link
Metabolic Syndrome / Cardiovascular Diseases
Study Results Link
Astaxanthin improves glucose metabolism and reduces blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (2018) (8) Increase of serum adiponectin concentration (protective role against metabolic diseases), reduction of body visceral fat, reduction of serum triglycerides, VLDL (triglyceride and cholesterol transporter) and systolic blood pressure. Decrease of fructosamine concentration and marginally reduced blood glucose Abrir Link
Usefulness of Nutraceuticals (Armolipid Plus) Versus Ezetimibe and Combination in Statin-Intolerant Patients With Dyslipidemia With Coronary Heart Disease. (2015) (9) Decrease of LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglyceride values and increase of HDL cholesterol (“good cholesterol”) values compared to individuals who took a drug for dyslipidemia (ezetimibe) Abrir Link
Positive effects of astaxanthin on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in overweight subjects. (2011) (10) Significant reduction of LDL and ApoB cholesterol (cholesterol transporter).Reduction of oxidative stress markers and increase of total antioxidant capacity Abrir Link
Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia. (2010) (11) Reduction of triglycerides levels and increasing levels of HDL and serum adiponectin Abrir Link
Effects of Mixed Carotenoids on Adipokines and Abdominal Adiposity in Children: A Pilot Study. (2017) (12) Increase of total adiponectin levels and high molecular weight adiponectin. Reduction of BMI, waist-to-height ratio and subcutaneous fat Abrir Link
Protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis of high-glucose-exposed proximal tubular epithelial cells by astaxanthin. (2009) (13) Protective role in diabetic nephropathy (renal complication of diabetes mellitus) Abrir Link
Anti-aging
Study Results Link
Enhanced antioxidant capacity and anti-ageing biomarkers after diet micronutrient supplementation. (2014) (14) Increased total antioxidant activity of plasma, increased antioxidant capacity of red blood cells Increased levels of enzymes that decrease with aging Increased levels of growth factors that decrease with aging and whose reduction is associated with impaired memory and learning ability Abrir Link
Gastric
Study Results Link
Nutraceutical Approach to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): The Available Clinical Evidence. Nutrients. (2018) (16) Prevention of liver damage induced by non-alcoholic fatty liver Abrir Link
Astaxanthin Inhibits Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Interleukin-8 Expression in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Epithelial Cells. Nutrients. (2018) (17) Reduction of oxidative stress and inflammatory response caused by Helicobacer pylori infection Abrir Link
Skin
Study Results Link
Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on humans subjects. (2012) (18) Decreased skin wrinkles. Decrease in the size of age-related spots. Improved skin elasticity, texture and hydration. Abrir Link
Supplementating with dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate improves facial elasticity and decreases matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -12 expression: a comparative study with placebo. (2014) (19) Improvement of skin elasticity Reduced transepidermal water loss from the sun-aged face Abrir Link
Protective effects of astaxanthin on skin deterioration. (2017) (20) Suppression of the inflammatory response to skin exposed to UV-B. Increased skin hydration. Reduction of facial wrinkles. Abrir Link
Continuous astaxanthin intake reduces oxidative stress and reverses age-related morphological changes of residual skin surface components in middle-aged volunteers. (2017)(21) Reduction of keratinocyte flaking Reduction of the presence of microbes on the skin Reduction in lipid droplet size especially in obese Rejuvenating antioxidant effect of facial skin Abrir Link
The Protective Role of Astaxanthin for UV-Induced Skin Deterioration in Healthy People-A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. (2018) (22) Protection of the skin against UV radiation with an increase in the minimum dose of erythema ("scald"), reduction of loss of skin hydration in the irradiated area and improvement of skin texture Abrir Link
Eyes
Study Results Link
Carotenoids in Age-related Maculopathy Italian Study (CARMIS): two-year results of a randomized study. (2012) (23) Stabilization / improvement in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and visual function in 2 years in patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Abrir Link
Tumor
Study Results Link
Effects of Astaxanthin on the Proliferation and Migration of Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro. (2018) (24) Significant inhibition of tumor cell migration and reduction in the number of tumor cells, with preservation of healthy cells Abrir Link
Carotenoids inhibit proliferation and regulate expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in K562 cancer cells. (2011) (25) Reduction of cell viability, death induction and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation Abrir Link
Abbreviations
AST: Astaxantina
P: Placebo
AChE: acetilcolinesterase
GSH: glutationa
DOX: doxorrubicina
PLOOH: Phospholipid hydroperoxides
BDNF: factor neurotrófico derivado do cérebro
SAH: hemorragia subaracnoideia
BHE: barreira hemato-encefálica
NGF: nerve growth factor
DM: Diabetes Mellitus
DMNIT: Diabetes Mellitus não insulino tratada
HTA: hipertensão
PCI: intervenção coronária percutânea ALT: alanina aminotrasnferase
AST: aspartato aminotransferase
TC: colesterol total
TGL: triglicéridos
PCR: proteina C reactiva
NAFLD: Doença hepática não alcoólica
MMP-1: Metaloproteinase da matriz 1
PPAR-γ: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Bibliographic references
  1. Liu SZ, Ali AS, Campbell MD, Kilroy K, Shankland EG, Roshanravan B, et al. Building strength, endurance, and mobility using an astaxanthin formulation with functional training in elderly. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2018;9(5):826-33.
  2. Djordjevic B, Baralic I, Kotur-Stevuljevic J, Stefanovic A, Ivanisevic J, Radivojevic N, et al. Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on muscle damage and oxidative stress markers in elite young soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2012;52(4):382-92.
  3. Earnest CP, Lupo M, White KM, Church TS. Effect of astaxanthin on cycling time trial performance. Int J Sports Med. 2011;32(11):882-8.
  4. Baralic I, Andjelkovic M, Djordjevic B, Dikic N, Radivojevic N, Suzin-Zivkovic V, et al. Effect of Astaxanthin Supplementation on Salivary IgA, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Young Soccer Players. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:783761.
  5. Nakagawa K, Kiko T, Miyazawa T, Carpentero Burdeos G, Kimura F, Satoh A. Antioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. Br J Nutr. 2011;105(11):1563-71.
  6. Chang CH, Chen CY, Chiou JY, Peng RY, Peng CH. Astaxanthine secured apoptotic death of PC12 cells induced by beta-amyloid peptide 25-35: its molecular action targets. J Med Food. 2010;13(3):548-56.
  7. Imai A, Oda Y, Ito N, Seki S, Nakagawa K, Miyazawa T, et al. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Astaxanthin and Sesamin on Daily Fatigue: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Way Crossover Study. Nutrients. 2018;10(3).
  8. Mashhadi NS, Zakerkish M, Mohammadiasl J, Zarei M, Mohammadshahi M, Haghighizadeh MH. Astaxanthin improves glucose metabolism and reduces blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2018;27(2):341-6.
  9. Marazzi G, Pelliccia F, Campolongo G, Quattrino S, Cacciotti L, Volterrani M, et al. Usefulness of Nutraceuticals (Armolipid Plus) Versus Ezetimibe and Combination in Statin-Intolerant Patients With Dyslipidemia With Coronary Heart Disease. Am J Cardiol. 2015;116(12):1798-801.
  10. Choi HD, Youn YK, Shin WG. Positive effects of astaxanthin on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in overweight subjects. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2011;66(4):363-9.
  11. Yoshida H, Yanai H, Ito K, Tomono Y, Koikeda T, Tsukahara H, et al. Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis. 2010;209(2):520-3.
  12. Canas JA, Lochrie A, McGowan AG, Hossain J, Schettino C, Balagopal PB. Effects of Mixed Carotenoids on Adipokines and Abdominal Adiposity in Children: A Pilot Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102(6):1983-90.
  13. Kim YJ, Kim YA, Yokozawa T. Protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis of high-glucose-exposed proximal tubular epithelial cells by astaxanthin. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57(19):8793-7.
  14. Balcerczyk A, Gajewska A, Macierzynska-Piotrowska E, Pawelczyk T, Bartosz G, Szemraj J. Enhanced antioxidant capacity and anti-ageing biomarkers after diet micronutrient supplementation. Molecules. 2014;19(9):14794-808.
  15. Park JS, Chyun JH, Kim YK, Line LL, Chew BP. Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010;7:18.
  16. Cicero AFG, Colletti A, Bellentani S. Nutraceutical Approach to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): The Available Clinical Evidence. Nutrients. 2018;10(9).
  17. Kim SH, Lim JW, Kim H. Astaxanthin Inhibits Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Interleukin-8 Expression in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Epithelial Cells. Nutrients. 2018;10(9).
  18. Tominaga K, Hongo N, Karato M, Yamashita E. Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on humans subjects. Acta Biochim Pol. 2012;59(1):43-7.
  19. Yoon HS, Cho HH, Cho S, Lee SR, Shin MH, Chung JH. Supplementating with dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate improves facial elasticity and decreases matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -12 expression: a comparative study with placebo. J Med Food. 2014;17(7):810-6.
  20. Tominaga K, Hongo N, Fujishita M, Takahashi Y, Adachi Y. Protective effects of astaxanthin on skin deterioration. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2017;61(1):33-9.
  21. Chalyk NE, Klochkov VA, Bandaletova TY, Kyle NH, Petyaev IM. Continuous astaxanthin intake reduces oxidative stress and reverses age-related morphological changes of residual skin surface components in middle-aged volunteers. Nutr Res. 2017;48:40-8.
  22. Ito N, Seki S, Ueda F. The Protective Role of Astaxanthin for UV-Induced Skin Deterioration in Healthy People-A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2018;10(7).
  23. Piermarocchi S, Saviano S, Parisi V, Tedeschi M, Panozzo G, Scarpa G, et al. Carotenoids in Age-related Maculopathy Italian Study (CARMIS): two-year results of a randomized study. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2012;22(2):216-25.
  24. McCall B, McPartland CK, Moore R, Frank-Kamenetskii A, Booth BW. Effects of Astaxanthin on the Proliferation and Migration of Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro. Antioxidants (Basel). 2018;7(10).
  25. Zhang X, Zhao WE, Hu L, Zhao L, Huang J. Carotenoids inhibit proliferation and regulate expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in K562 cancer cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;512(1):96-106.
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